Useful introduction to the features of academic style (formal vocabulary; being objective) with practice activities.
This book takes you through the whole process of academic writing from selecting suitable sources, reading, note-making and planning through to re-writing and proofreading.
This resource will help you write clearly by eliminating unecessary words and rearranging your phrases.
This site presents ways of using 'cautious' language to help you make your writing more objective.
This well-structured and comprehensive site takes you through the features of academic writing including being formal, analytical, clear and logical. A thorough introduction to academic style with exercises.
Useful formal academic expressions organised in lists.
In general, formal academic writing is:
- Serious and formal – NOT conversational
- Impersonal – NOT personal
- Intellectual and objective – NOT emotional
- Precise and concise – NOT vague and repetitive
One way to achieve this is to remove I, we and you.
Try to avoid:
- I believe the strategy was poorly designed.
- You can see that the strategy was poorly designed.
Instead use a clear statement:
- The strategy was poorly designed.
Your opinion will become clear in a more formal, impersonal, objective style as you support and explain your point:
- This strategy was poorly designed. The weaknesses are highlighted by the disastrous events that followed.
- The strategy was poorly designed. However, this perspective is not supported by accounts from local newspapers.